When I talked about the importance of being a data geek in the previous chapter, I explained the conversion funnel, which is formed by a set of data that we can consider short-termed, because within a few days (or even hours) you can notice trends, take conclusions, create hypotheses and validate them, whether talking to your users or making experiments and measuring the results.
I also talked about engagement metrics, which show how your users interact with your product, and about churn, both from the client and revenue. That will help you to understand how many clients are no longer clients, why they gave up, and what is the impact of it on your revenue.
Aside from these data, there are other ones that take more time to be established and start to show some tendency, but that should be monitored from your product’s first month. These are the financial metrics, that can be categorized in global numbers (revenue and costs) and individual numbers: CAC (Customer Acquisition Cost), LT (Lifetime), and LTV (Lifetime Value).
Revenue is the money you get when people use your product. Cost is any money that has to be spent or given up in order to get your product going. Basically, this revenue will be used to pay for your costs. When you can afford to pay for your monthly costs, the surplus will be used to offset the investment of the months when the monthly revenue doesn’t cover the costs.
Both revenue and costs should be checked out month over month. It is important to categorize your costs, so it can help you to understand where you are spending the most and where you can save. I use to put costs under 3 categories:
In order to have a profitable product, the monthly income should be higher than the monthly expenses. It is as simple as that. However, it is easier said than done.
The revenue and the costs are global indicators of your web product’s health. It is important to have individual indicators, that is, one for each client of yours.
There are three very important indicators:
In these definitions, it’s easy to see that your product will be as profitable as higher is the LT and the LTV and that you need your LTV higher than your CAC.
In this example, we have an LTV of $160 and a CAC of $100, which shows that we have a profitable situation. It is necessary to follow up closely on these numbers, month by month. If in a given month the LTV continues at $160 and the CAC goes up to more than $160, it’s necessary to review the client acquisition efforts. Also, you should study ways to increase the LTV, augment the LT, and/or augment the monthly value.
Revenue churn is a measure of the lost revenue for a business model based on subscriptions, calculated in terms of client churn and the total revenue over a period.
You can calculate it as follows:
Monthly revenue churn = revenue from clients who canceled on the month / total revenue of the month.
In order for your product to grow, it is necessary to have an increase in the monthly revenue higher than your monthly revenue churn.
There is an important difference between revenue churn and client churn. Client churn will always be a positive number, but the revenue churn can end up being negative. How? The revenue growth from your existent clients must be higher than the revenue churn from clients who are canceling the service on that month, without considering the revenue from new clients on that given month.
Client churn is the number of clients who are no longer users or clients. It is important to know how many are they, and the reasons why that happened, because you need this data to improve your product, to reduce the churn.
See in the following picture the difference between client churn and revenue churn:
The negative churn occurs when your existing clients use more of your software product and they have to pay for it, and revenue gain exceeds revenue loss from existing customers who purchase less over time, including clients churn. For example, when clients upgrade a service plan with more features, when they hire additional services, when they pay for additional use, or when they buy more access accounts.
This will make your product grow more than the number of new sales per month, because with a negative churn, even if you don’t have any new sales, your revenue will grow due to the revenue increase from existing clients. That’s why negative churn is considered the “Holy Grail” of products that have a business model based on subscriptions.
In the next chapter, we’ll see the best metrics of all, in my opinion: the loyalty metrics.
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